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Levels 5 and 6 table

At levels 5 and 6 - review the ideas / forms / functions from levels 1-4. Add detail to, and extend the range of, these basic ideas. Be aware of any learners who need ‘catch-up’ work on structures already introduced, and those who need more extension than others. Aim for your learners to understand the following ideas:

  • Complex sentences: subordination.
  • Adverbial phrases and clauses of various sorts, and when to use each type.
  • The more straightforward types of relative clauses.
  • A brief introduction to noun or complement clauses.
  • More on categories of possession and possessive expressions.
  • More detail about verbal particles (tense, aspect and mood markers) and how these are used in spoken and written texts.
  • The ideas of tense (time of action), aspect (type of action), and mood (for example: signalling certainty and uncertainty, obligation, wish, intention; see Bauer, 1997).
  • Review and extend knowledge of postposed particles, their range and shades of meaning.
  • Explore idiom and colloquial language.
  • Explore the features of various types of texts – the ways in which different texts are structured (for example: waiata, karanga, whaikōrero, conversations, letters, narratives, recipes, expository and argument essays).

Levels 5 and 6

References to Harlow, 2001

Harlow pages

References to Head, 1989 (available online)

Head pages

Adverbial clauses of time
(state when things happen); introduce some at this level and the others at Levels 7 and 8
Clauses of time 239-244    
Adverbial clauses of purpose
(state the purpose for an event or action)
Clauses of purpose 244-246    
Adverbial clauses of reason (state the reason for an event, action or state) Clauses of reason 246-248    
Conditional clauses
(state the conditions under which something happens)
(if); with mehemea
Conditional clauses 248-249    
Concessive clauses
(state that although one thing is the case, the other thing is still true, relevant etc.) ahakoa
Concessive clauses 251-252    
Comparative clauses
(compare one thing to another: as if, as though) anō nei, me te mea nei
Comparative clauses 252    
Subordination: introduction to relative clauses (clauses which qualify - add information about - a noun) Relative clauses 257-276    
Relative clauses - the 'zero' strategy The 'zero' strategy of relative clause formation 260-262    
Relative clauses- the 'ai’ strategy The 'ai’ strategy of relative clause formation 262-265    
Verbs: pseudo passive ‘he mea …'
He mea kai aua āporo e ngā tamariki
‘Pseudo'-passive 193    
tā = te … a; ā = ngā … a
tō = te … o; ō = ngā … o
tā Manu mahi = te mahi a Manu
tō Manu matua = te matua o Manu
ō Manu mātua = ngā mātua o Manu
Focus on a / o in phrases (te patunga a Manu / te patunga o Manu) Comments following nouns;
see also the section on nominalisations
whaka- 'in direction of, towards,'
For example:
whakarunga, whakaroto, whakamua
whakamauī, whakatemauī, whakatetonga
whaka- with locatives and phrases of place 124-125    
Other items        
Ehara i te mea + clause… (it isn't as if)
for example:
Ehara i te mea ko ia te rangatira
Tērā e pōhēhētia + clause
one would / you’d think that …’
for example:
Tērā e pōhēhētia ko ia te rangatira!
te mate
'the trouble with, what is wrong with'
He aha te mate … ?
Koina te mate …. Ko te mate …
He aha te mate o te noho ki konei?
Ko te mate, he makariri rawa
Ehara! and its various meanings and uses Yes-no questions 223-224    
Engari! in response to questions with kāore Yes-no questions 223-224    
rite tonu as continuing action, to keep on doing something. He rite tonu tana waiata i taua waiata tonu 93-94    
Word classes        
Verb particles (tense, aspect, mood markers) e
ki te
When to use kia, when to use ki te Excursus on English to and on kia vs. ki te
kia vs.
ki te
Review and extend postposed particles – add to the range of meanings known for tonu, noa, noa iho, anō, ake, etc. Structure of the post-posed periphery
Order of particles

85- 86


Word formation        
Review reduplication - full and partial - and its meanings Reduplication 113-118    
prefix tau- tau- 125    
prefix mā- mā- 125    
prefix whaka- with transitive verbs; variant form whā- whaka- with transitive verbs 123-124

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